Contact Information

  • Jaroslaw Polanski
  • Professor
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Univ. of Silesia
  • Institute of Chemistry
  • 14 Bankowa Street
  • Katowice 40-007, Poland
+48 (0) 32 59 99 78

Microwave-Assisted Heterocyclic Chemistry for Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

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Heterocyclic compounds have a wide range of applications and properties. They are often antimicrobial agents, can inhibit specific enzymes, and are generally useful in organic synthesis. This experiment provides instructors with a variety of heterocyclic compounds that can be synthesized quickly with the aid of microwaves. While not a lot of Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) is taught at the undergraduate level, it has the advantages of generally increasing yields, decreased reaction times, and, in most cases, eliminating the need for a solvent.

The heterocyclic chemistry includes the synthesis of compounds such as phthalamide, succinic anhydride and benzoxazinone. This experiment would fit well into a course when discussing green chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, esters, amides, anhydrides, amines, carboxylic acids, melting points and recrystallization.

The supplemental information includes a list of necessary chemicals and equipment, a student handout, procedures, and melting point data for all products.

Summary prepared October 2008 by Douglas M. Young at the University of Oregon.


Musiol, R.; Tyman-Szram, B.; Polanski, J. J. Chem. Educ., Print 2006, 83, pp 632-633.

J. Chem. Educ. (Abstract only)

Category Descriptors

Chemistry Concepts
  • Addition Rxn
  • Carbonyl Chemistry
  • Esters
  • Heterocycles
  • Nucleophilic Substitution
  • Photochemistry
Laboratory Techniques
  • Melting Points and Melting Ranges
  • Recrystallization
  • Vacuum Filtration
Green Chemistry Principles
  • Increase Energy Efficiency
  • Maximize Atom Economy
  • Minimize the Potential for Accidents
  • Prevent Waste
  • Use Safer Solvents/Reaction Conditions
Chemistry Subdiscipline
  • Organic Chemistry
Target Audience
  • Colleges/Universities
  • Journal Articles